Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which the divers wear masks and breathing gear to breathe underwater. They use specialized scuba equipment such as tanks and air regulators for this purpose.
Types of Scuba diving equipment
The scuba equipment used by the divers is of two types: surface supplied (SS) or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). In SS the diver is connected through a lifeline to a gas supply at the surface, usually from an air compressor; while SCUBA allows the diver to dive with more freedom and less support than with SS.
They may also be classified as open circuit or closed circuit: Open circuit configuration uses the pump to bring the gas from the cylinder to the diver, who then delivers it to the mouthpiece. In the case of a demand system or free-flow system, when a mouthpiece is in use and there is no need for inhalation; excess gas automatically returns directly to the surface through an open circuit safety valve (a safety mechanism designed to release any built-up excess pressure), without passing through a regulator. A closed-circuit breathing set contains a supply of gas at high pressure and low volume which circulates from one or more storage cylinders through a reducing valve or injector, then into the diver’s mouth by way of an underwater full-face mask. This reduces breathing resistance for safe breathing during exposure to long periods underwater because less effort is required to inhale and exhale.
Scuba equipment used by divers include
• Mask: protects eyes and nose from water and gives a clear view under and around the diver. It also prevents penetration of water into the respiratory system;
• Snorkel: allows breathing when the head is submerged while ascending or descending underwater;
• Fins: aids in propulsion while swimming underwater;
• Harness (or buoyancy compensator): helps to control buoyancy on the surface and below the surface (when diving);
• Flotation device (inflatable vest) for assisting in keeping afloat; Customers can choose from a – wide range of such items on shopping channel India-Nivesh.com.
• Drysuit: it protects the diver from cold and water pressure;
• Buoyancy compensator: helps to control buoyancy on surface and underwater (for diving); it is usually set via a first stage regulator to achieve neutral or positive buoyancy;
• Exposure suit: protects the diver from physical damage due to marine life, rocks, submerged objects, etc.; this may be either a wetsuit (thickness according to water temperature) or a dry suit (a sealed garment enclosing the body, as well as extremities such as hands and feet);
• Flyweight harness: worn around the waist to support cylinders and dive accessories;
• Underwater tools/equipment: used during scuba diving operation;
A regulator item of scuba diving equipment
A regulator is an item of diving equipment used to provide breathing gas from a scuba cylinder or compressor to the diver’s mouth on demand, there are some stages mentioned below.
• First-stage regulator: delivers breathing gas at ambient pressure to demand valve;
• Second-stage regulator: meter breathing gas flowing from first-stage to the diver;
• Demand valve opens when you inhale and closes when you exhale. If there is no flow then manual operation must be used.